The Nansemond of the Great Dismal

The Nansemond are a Native American tribe whose ancestral land surrounds the Nansemond River in southeastern Virginia. During the early 1600s, the tribe was briefly part of the Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom along with approximately thirty other Algonquian-speaking tribes in the area. The arrival of English settlers and the subsequent Anglo-Powhatan Wars led to land loss and displacement for thousands of native people.

The majority of the tribe’s present membership traces its ancestry to the early intermarriage of a Nansemond woman, Elizabeth, and an English settler, John Bass, in 1638. While some Nansemond resisted English culture, many tribal members—including Elizabeth—converted to Christianity and assimilated. The complex history of colonial and post-colonial Nansemond life has been most thoroughly documented by anthropologist Helen Rountree.

Elizabeth and John Bass’ descendants spread throughout Virginia and North Carolina but the tribal core remained in a community called Bowers Hill along the northern perimeter of the Great Dismal Swamp. If you ask people in Camden County, many are familiar with the Bass family. In fact, the current chief of the tribe, Earl Bass, lives in South Mills but most people view the Nansemond as close Virginian neighbors rather than locals.

Norfolk To From Nixonton
In the 1770s there was a road from Norfolk to/from Nixonton (documented on Captain John Collet’s 1770 map of North Carolina). This road was likely used by traders to exchange goods at the Narrows of the Pasquotank River.

A brief study of the geography and development of Norfolk and Camden counties reveals the basis for a relationship much closer than neighbors. Though people frequently traveled across the Virginia-North Carolina border, the construction of the Dismal Swamp Canal created a direct connection between the communities of Deep Creek (at the northern edge of the Great Dismal Swamp) and South Mills (at the southern edge). U.S. Route 17, a causeway road, opened in 1790 and construction on the Canal began in 1793.

The Canal was dug from the ends to the middle and, when it was completed in 1805, it connected the Elizabeth River to the Pasquotank River—which further connected the Chesapeake Bay to the Albemarle Sound. This significant internal development transformed regional transportation and, before it was even in use, changed the composition of families in the area. Many communities long established north of the state border began to shift south.

One year after construction of the Dismal Swamp Canal began, a William Bass signed a six year lease (January 1, 1794 – January 1, 1800) with John Jones, Sr. for a plantation of 60 acres located on the east side of the Pasquotank River in Camden County. Indian corn and apples were noted as produce from the plantation and William was required to share a portion with John. By the 1800 Federal Census, William was listed with a household of seven–one male over 45 (born before 1755), one female 26-44 (born 1756-1774), one male 10-15 (born 1785-1790), and four females under 10 (born 1790-1800).

William Bass 1793 Lease
John Jones, Sr. Lease To William Bass, January 1, 1794 – January 1, 1800 (Deed Book F, Page 238)

One year after the end of his lease, on April 10, 1801, William Bass purchased 125 acres of land from John Sikes. This land was also located on the east side of the Pasquotank River, opposite of Richardson’s Landing, and bounded by the land of Pharaoh Sawyer, David Hall, Thomas Overton, and Joel Sawyer (Deed Book I, Page 148). Six years later, a Joseph Bass purchased 6.20 acres from Mathias Etheridge on March 28, 1807. This land was located in Areneuse Creek and his neighbors were Demsey Etheridge, Peter Marcus, Esquire, William Pugh, and Thomas Ferrell.

Joseph Bass 1807
Mathias Etheridge Sale To Joseph Bass, March 28, 1807 (Deed Book L, Page 159)

In the 1810 Federal Census, Joseph was head of a household of four with one male 26-44 (born 1766-1784), one female 16-25 (born 1785-1794), one female under 10 (born after 1800), and one slave. William appears to have died some time between 1816 and 1820 (when his transactions ended and he stopped being recorded in the Federal Census), but his wife and children remained in the area. Joseph was also never documented in Camden County again but he too left family behind.

In the 1820 Federal Census, a Nancy Bass was head of a household of nine including one female over 45 (born before 1785), three females 26-44 (born 1776-1794), two females 14-25 (born 1775-1806), one female under 14 (born after 1806), and two males under 14 (born after 1806). Nancy, William’s widow, appeared to have been living with their daughters (and perhaps some grandchildren) but their only son moved out.

Thomas Bass‘ household of five included one male over 45 (born before 1785), one female 26-44 (born 1776-1794), one male 14-25 (born 1775-1806), and two females 14-25 (born 1775-1806). Based on order in the census and the names of neighbors it appears that Thomas’ household was close to Nancy’s and it is possible that some of his siblings were living with him.

From this core family, the Basses established themselves in Camden County just 20 miles south of the Nansemond Bass family of Norfolk County. Interestingly, the core of the tribal community lived around Galberry Road in Norfolk and the relocated Basses established a new Gallberry Road in Camden (see the full map here). Collectively, they owned hundreds of acres of land, held a number of different jobs, served in the military, and a road—Bass Lake Road (near McBride Church, which the family attended)—still exists in their memory. Some major questions remain to be answered about this family:

Where did William Bass and Joseph Bass come from?

Although his birthplace is currently undocumented, William Bass (b. 1755) married his wife, Ann (Nancy) Sammon in Norfolk County, VA in 1786. Willis Bass (a likely relative) was the surety for William’s marriage and he married Jemima Nickens around the same time (both marriage bonds were dated December 18, 1786). While William established his family in Camden County, NC, Willis remained in Norfolk County, VA.

Nancy Sammon’s lineage is unclear but there is strong evidence that she descended from the Salmon/Sammon family of Lower Norfolk and Princess Anne counties. The Sammons owned land in an area called Pungo Ridge which was close to where the Norfolk Basses were living on the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River near Great Bridge.

Rather than a lack of evidence of William Bass and Joseph Bass’ presence in Norfolk, the problem is an abundance of evidence related to multiple people by the same names. In fact, there were Basses of these names and ages in counties throughout Virginia and North Carolina. Until William Bass and Joseph Bass of Camden County can be differentiated from those in other locations, their relationships are an indirect means of studying their origins.

How were they related to other families in the region?

David Hall (b. 1755-1765) was a likely relative of William Bass. They may have been cousins and they may have had connections to the same Salmon(s)/Sammon(s) family (William Bass’ wife was Nancy Sammon and David Hall’s son was Willoughby Sammons). The Basses and the Halls lived together in Virginia, North Carolina, and those who received bounty land warrants for military service in the Revolutionary War moved together to Tennessee. David Hall and William Bass shared many familial connections and owned adjoining land for most of their lives in Camden County.

The Price family was also closely connected to the Bass family in both Norfolk and Camden. The descendants of Elizabeth Price (b. 1675) dispersed between the two counties and they intermarried so much that Price became a common surname of the Nansemond tribe. Sally Price married John Gibbs Bass in 1812 and Nancy Price married Nelson Bass in 1817. Asa Price, who married Sally Bass, received a court order certifying that he was of Indian descent and was ‘not a free negro or mulatto’ in 1833 (Norfolk County, Quarterly Superior Court, Minute Book 24, Pages 27-28).

Were these Basses Nansemond?

Willis Bass and Jemima Nicken’s children were recorded in the Bass Family Bible—which is one of the primary records used to verify lineage for tribal enrollment with the Nansemond. Several of their children also went on to be certified as ‘not free-Negroes or Mulattoes’ but ‘of Indian descent’ in 1833.

These records, based on the testimony of friends, were the result of the ‘Not Negro Law‘ passed by Norfolk, VA legislator John Murdaugh. The law was intended to protect prominent people of mixed race (generally a combination of European, African, and Indian ancestry) from emerging anti-Black legislation after Nat Turner’s Rebellion. Many families of identical origins throughout the state of North Carolina do not have these records because this law was not passed in North Carolina.

The Camden Basses were documented as ‘White’ in the early 1800s but were often documented as ‘Mulatto’ and/or ‘Negro’ in later years. Though there was little consistency in their racial descriptions, this pattern was entirely consistent with the manner in which other Indian people—including the Norfolk Basses—were documented at the time. Several descendants of William Bass (of Camden County) traveled to Norfolk and several descendants of Willis Bass (of Norfolk County) relocated to Camden.

A number of other families from the Nansemond core followed similar migratory patterns. The two earliest surnames associated with the tribe were Bass and Weaver. Some surnames that later became associated with the tribe (primarily through intermarriage with people of European ancestry) are: Bateman, Bond, Brady, Bright, Cable, Collins, Craigins, Gaylord, Gray, Green, Harmon, Holloway, Howard, Jones, Okay, Osborn, Porter, Price, Rowland, Sawyer, Scott, Sebastian, Simcoe, White, Wilkins, and Williams.

Weight of Evidence

Though the current evidence of the origin of the Camden Bass family is strong, more information must be collected to verify their lineage. This is a complex story and one must be adamant about supporting all statements with records. The Bass family and most other free families of color migrated in a number of directions and it is a challenge to keep chronologies and identities clear.

Through my exhaustive research of the Camden Basses, I have discovered a number of other potential Indian families living around them. Have you heard stories of Indians in your own Camden County research? I would love to collect oral history from others with similar ancestry. Stay tuned for new posts about the lives of William Bass’ descendants.

The featured image on this post is a custom map overlay I made using “Dismal Swamp Canal connecting the Chesapeake Bay with Currituck, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and their tributary streams, by D. S. Walton, Civil Engineer, 1867.” The original map was made after the migration of the Basses from Norfolk to Camden but it contains detailed information about early infrastructure.

13 Comments on “The Nansemond of the Great Dismal

  1. Thanks for all your work,Nikki. My 3rd great grandfather was Edward Bass b 1760 Wayne co NC. Md Hannah Moon in Chatham Co NC then moved to Surry Co NC. I believe he is son of Old Aaron Bass and Nancy Gray. I found records from Rev. War that leads me to this. He told his sons, William, Aaron, Ned (edward) ,Moses, and I think one other that they would not go and fight. I believe this Aaron was son of John and Love of Bertie Co. Do you have any records on this? I am soon to be 85 and would like to prove some of this before it’s too late. My son had a DNA through Ancestry. It showed no Native American but did show a 1 per cent Black. Anything you can tell me? Thanks, Minnie Bass Lorenzen


    • Hello Minnie! Thank you so much for visiting my blog! I do not have any records for the Basses you have named but I can tell you that a lack of Native American DNA does not mean a complete lack of Native American ancestry. Many people with verified lineage have had similar results due to the number of generations between the test subject and the last Native American ancestor. If I come across anything that mentions these names I will certainly pass it along to you. Thanks again for stopping by!


      • You are correct Nikki on your DNA comment, and here is why.

        DNA evidence is only definitive if you are tracing a fully Paternal branch of a Family tree, since the Y chromosome passed from Father to Son remains identical from generation to generation via Chromosomal DNA.

        However, DNA traced via a Maternal branch has both a Father and Mother component, since each parent contributes an X Chromosome, and, unless Both Parents are Native, there is a good chance Native heritage can not be verified, since the Non-Native parent’s gene may be present for the gene marker identified on a Chromosome as a Native American Gene Marker.

        I know this is a very convoluted and confusing explanation why this is the case, but I wanted to share, since my family descendants of the Basses lost all our Male Descendants and tracing DNA via my grandmother does not show Native Ancestor, even though we have family records.

        A great source to research how the DNA Gene Markers work for yourself is to look up the decommissioned National Genographic Project run by the National Geographic Society. They have identified the unique gene markers of various cultures and lands around the world, and give great explanation of what DNA CAN and CAN NOT tell you about your heritage.

        Good Luck on your search. I know my family is still struggling to put all the pieces of the puzzle back together.


    • Edward was the son of Aaron Bass (1710-1790 and Nancy Gray. Aaron Bass was the son of John Bass (1673-1732) amd Love Harris. John Bass was the son of William Basse (1654-1741) and Catherine Lanier. William Basse was NOT the son of John Basse who married Elizabeth the Nansemond. Elizabeth had William with an unknown subsaharan african man. This is told by DNA. William is from the A Haplogroup. John Bass and all of his children are the R haplogroup. William (1654) has YDNA that is speciofically foundin a small area of Senegambia. It has never been found in another place. William’s DNa is Rare Haplogroup A M31 Cluster 3. The oldest DNA every found. This unknown man is my 9th great grandfather.


  2. Great information Nikki. Thank you for your thorough research and presentation. I’m sure it will be helpful as many Bass descendants work on their branches and how they may interconnect with your branch.


  3. Hello Nicki…I am Louise Bass and I am a descendant of William Bass b/1676. Some people go from him to William b/1736 and some from William 1676 to William 1703 to William 1736 to John1760. I do want some clarity on this and I would appreciate some help. If this is not the right site to talk about this, I apologize but I do so want some clarity on this.
    Thank you for all you have done on the Basses and I think JOB WELL DONE!!
    Thanks again………….Louise


    • After much searching, I have come to a very different conclusion as to my Basses AND it is not those listed above. I won’t post them here until I am absolutely confident to what I post. If possible, can the above posting be deleted? If I were a computer geek I guess I could do it myself.
      Thanks again………….Louise


  4. Nikki! So excited to find you! Have been working as fast as I can to research my father-in-laws family tree as he has the beginnings of dementia and he’s REALLY interested in all this.
    I’ve gotten information dating back to his great grandpa JAMES CALVIN BASS 1820-1906 and then came across a William Bass (plantation owner) 1802-1860 who had 2 sons, James H Calvin and Thomas, and is listed as having married Mary Ann Sexton (1800-1880) 3 years after Thomas was born. Any help you could give me would be GREATLY appreciated!! THANK YOU!!! Lynne

    Liked by 1 person

  5. I’m looking for the family records of my great grandma Rhodah Eliza Simmons her mother was Minnie Bass and her father was Marshall Simmons of (Halls) of Clinton,NC.


  6. Nice read, Nikki.
    I appreciate you sharing this information as I continue my research on my Bass/Chavis connection. I’ve got a lot of blocks, but my DNA is proving to be a really good pointer to finding my ancestors.


  7. Pingback: Trapping Black Bears in the Great Dismal Swamp - Virginia Folklife Program

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