The Lives of Lydia Bass & Phineas Sanborn Conner

I have often noted the importance of oral history. No matter how vague a story may be, it can be an invaluable genealogical clue. Recently, this fact was reaffirmed when I was contacted by a cousin with oral history about my third great grandparents (William and Lydia Bass) that led to an explosion of new information. So many new relationships have materialized from what was shared that I will likely have to write a number of articles to capture it all.

Connor Farm Road
Intersection of Connor Farm Road and Old Swamp Road in South Mills

The first thing my cousin shared was that my third great grandmother, Lydia Bass (b. 1820), went to work on Connor Farm when she was a teenager (around 1839). Connor Farm was the subject of many family stories and I even visited the farm on my first trip to Camden County, NC so this was not too much of a surprise. I was surprised, however, to learn that while working on Connor Farm Lydia began a relationship with a man named Phineas Sanborn Conner (b. 1813) that resulted in the birth of a child—my second great grandfather, John Bass (b. 1840).


Despite my excitement over this new information, I was momentarily stunned. Was this story true? Was I not a Bass? Had I spent all of this time researching a false lineage? The following is an overview of how I processed the information that was shared which I hope will provide some insight to others who are confronted with similar surprises.

Verifying Oral History

Before I did anything else, I immediately went to my AncestryDNA account and searched for the surnames “Conner” (also spelled “Connor“) and “Sanborn.” These were names I had never seen in my lineage and, before expending effort documenting this oral history, I wanted proof that the relationship was real. “Conner” is a common family name so I had a number of DNA matches with this surname with no apparent pattern in occurrence. “Sanborn,” on the other hand, is a less common family name and I had a number of DNA matches with this surname and an immediate pattern in occurrence.

Rockingham County, New Hampshire

Out of 10 Sanborn descended distant cousins (all in the 5th – 8th cousin range), almost all of them traced their lineage to the Sanborn family of Rockingham County, New Hampshire. Lucky for me, there was a well referenced profile for Phineas Sanborn Conner on WikiTree revealing that his mother, Hannah Sanborn, was from exactly this area. I knew from this moment that the oral history had to be true (in part if not in whole).

Once my Sanborn/Conner lineage was supported by genetic evidence, the biggest question on my mind was, “What was Lydia’s maiden name?” According to my cousin, he believed (based on accounts from multiple relatives) that Lydia—despite being married to a Bass—was born a Bass. I had seen other cousin marriages in my research so this was not implausible but I still wanted something to support this hypothesis. Thankfully, my cousin (who is two generations closer to our shared Bass ancestor) also had AncestryDNA results that provided invaluable insight.

At the 4th – 6th cousin range (with extremely high confidence), my cousin matched a Slocum. This user did not have an accessible family tree; however, I knew from previous research that the Slocums were descendants of Chris Slocum (b. 1867) and Hannah Bass (b. 1867, daughter of James Bass and Alcia Bass). There is a remote possibility that this user could be a descendant of another Slocum family but given the close range of the relationship and my past correspondence with other descendants of this branch of the Bass family, I feel confident that the oral history suggesting that Lydia was born a Bass is also true.

Lydia Bass & Polly Bass
James Bass (b. 1820) and Alcia Bass (b. 1824) were first cousins who married. Their daughter, Hannah Bass (b. 1867), married Chris Slocum (b. 1867) creating a genetic connection to a relatively uncommon surname which is extremely helpful in tracing relationships.

Documenting Oral History

Once I established some validity to the story, I was able to move forward with collecting documentation. Details about the life of Phineas Sanborn Conner were accessible all over the Internet. He was born in Westfield, MA, the son of Dr. Gideon Conner (of Newburyport, MA) and Hannah Sanborn (of Kingston, NH). At the age of 26, Phineas married his first cousin Eliza Sanborn, who was the daughter of Dr. Phineas Sanborn (of Kingston, NH) and Keziah Pritchard (of Camden, NC), in Westchester, PA.

1830 Federal Census w Dr Sanburn
The map accompanying the 1830 Federal Census for Camden County, NC (created by W.W. Forehand) reveals the close proximity of each of the families in this story. Keziah Pritchard (whose parents are presently unknown) seems to be the Camden County, NC core of the family.

This map depicting locations of families is a perfect pairing to this story. “Dr. Sanburn” is Phineas Sanborn—the uncle, namesake, and father-in-law of Phineas Sanborn Conner, “Pritchards” is the homestead of Keziah Pritchard’s family—the mother-in-law of Conner, and “Basses Lake” is the homestead of Lydia Bass’ family. Phineas and Eliza bore one son, Phineas Sanborn Conner, Jr., in Westchester, PA before moving to South Mills, NC around 1839.

Dr Phineas Sanborn Conner Sr
My 4th great grandfather, Dr. Phineas Sanborn Conner, Sr., Age 26

It was at this place and time that Phineas, a young white doctor from a well-established New England family, and Lydia, a young free woman of color from a tri-racial family, formed a relationship. It is difficult to describe their relationship without bias but oral history from both families (meaning white descendants of Conner and mixed race descendants of Bass) says that the relationship was consensual and that Lydia was known as Phineas’ mistress.

Based on the 1840 Federal Census for Camden County, NC, it appears that Lydia was already married to William Bass (who was head of a “white” household of 3 with 1 male 20-29, 1 female 20-29, and 1 female under 5). Lydia gave birth to John Bass around 1840 so his true paternity may have been hidden by the fact that she was married to William but oral history says that it was clear from his appearance that Phineas was his father.

Phineas and Eliza had one son, Charles Stevens Conner, in Camden County, NC in 1843 before moving to Hamilton County, OH where they bore their last son, John Sanborn Conner, in 1844. The Conner family was incredibly successful and both Phineas Sanborn Conner Sr. and Jr. were nationally respected medical doctors while John Sanborn Conner was a distinguished attorney and judge.

Phineas Sanborn Conner, Sr. died at an early age in 1854 and it is not currently clear if he left a will (though it appears that he did not). There was an inventory of his estate (Case # 2036, Bk Inv, Vol. 3, Page No. 131) and James M. White was granted administration of his estate after his widow, Eliza S. Conner, declined.

Phineas Sanborn Conner House
Dr. Phineas Sanborn Conner, Jr.’s Cincinnati Home on 104 William Howard Taft Road
Despite leaving Camden County, NC for Hamilton County, OH, the family appears to have retained their property in South Mills. In the Fall of 1865, John Sanborn Conner returned to his mother’s family property to protect it during Civil War battle.  Later, Eliza S. Conner made her son Charles S. Conner her power of attorney in Camden County effective 1 March 1870 (Deed Book CC, Page 468). I have not yet sorted out all of the relationships, but I strongly believe that Eliza’s family (as the daughter of Keziah Pritchard) was the same Pritchard family I have written about previously while exploring oral history leads.

Monticello Hotel
Monticello Hotel

According to oral history, John Bass was left a life estate for Connor Farm. If this is true, it would be a compelling piece of recorded history to corroborate his paternity and/or relationship to the Sanborns and Conners. Phineas seems to have died intestate so this gesture may have been made by one of John’s half-brothers. John continued to work on Conner Farm throughout his life and traded cotton at the Monticello Hotel in downtown Norfolk, VA. Family members said that John was able to live as a white man while some of his siblings (presumably fathered by William Bass) appeared colored and did not have as many liberties.

Effects on Genetic Research

While my autosomal DNA results still contain clues about my Bass ancestry (through Lydia Bass), my paternal haplogroup (R1b1b2a1a2f*) is not representative of a Bass male and is therefore not relevant in the Bass surname study (at least not to anyone outside of my direct lineage from John Bass). At this point, it appears this haplogroup is associated with Gideon Conner. I have not been able to locate other descendants of Gideon Conner in the Conner surname study but information about this haplogroup is consistent with what is known about the Conners (as people of Western European descent).

Phineas Conner John Bass Face Blend
Phineas Sanborn Conner / John Bass Face Blend

Despite the differences in age in their photos, the resemblance between Phineas Sanborn Conner and John Bass was immediately apparent to me. The resemblance has carried over through many generations Bass/Sanborn Conner males. My goal from this point is to collect as much documentation as I can (specifically, estate records for the Sanborn Conners) to support what has already been revealed through oral and genetic history. I have reached out to my Sanborn descended DNA matches to see if they have uploaded their results to GedMatch for further comparison and analysis. I also hope to learn more about Lydia’s life and lineage which remains a mystery (with a number of outstanding clues).

According to “Oral History

Several times in this article, I made the statement according to “oral history.” This is a vague reference (used merely for convenience) and I did not want to conclude this article without clarifying that these insights were shared by two descendants of the people in this story—one being Linwood Pritchard (b. 1917) and the other being Daniel Bass (b. 1901). While I have collected fragments of information family members, I was extremely fortunate that my cousin interviewed these individuals before they passed away—especially considering that Phineas Sanborn Conner was not recorded in a single census in Camden County, NC. I am deeply grateful for their honesty and the revelations it has enabled so many years later.


Andre KearnsI would like to note my DNA cousin, Andre Kearns’, talk “African American History Etched in my DNA” as an inspiration for this story. In his talk, Kearns discusses how advances in DNA testing can offer African Americans the possibility of leapfrogging brick walls created by slavery by analyzing family history documented within DNA. In my case, the brick wall was created through illegitimacy rather than slavery but the same principles apply. You can hear more on this talk this Thursday, June 29th at 9:00 PM on Bernice Bennett’s Blog Talk Radio.

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I am a Washington, DC-based genealogist, tribal citizen of Nansemond Indian Nation, and published member of both the Family Research Society of Northeastern North Carolina and the North Carolina Genealogical Society. I am an advocate for the Genealogical Proof Standard and I am also interested in environmental influences on historical communities and migration. Questions, CORRECTIONS, and connections are always welcome. Thank you for reading!

8 thoughts on “The Lives of Lydia Bass & Phineas Sanborn Conner

    1. I am collaborating on a history of the Barco family in North Carolina through 1900. We’re seeking out oral histories and other information on Barcos of every background in order to fill in the gaps in census records, etc. Algier, I’d love to learn anything you can share about Indie Barco. Does your message refer to India Barco, born about 1893, who appears on the 1930 census for South Mills, Camden County, or Indiana Barco, born ca. 1858, who is listed on the 1880 census for Shiloh Township? Tracing the ancestry of African American Barcos in the nineteenth century is an area of special focus. I’d really appreciate any information you can provide and will acknowledge and credit you in the text. We’d also appreciate hearing from anyone else who reads this message and has stories or information to share. Thank you and God bless!


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